Bacteria


Proteobacteria

Most are G-, chemohererotrophs, photosynthetic ancestor.

Alpha: Agricultural importance.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Plant pathogen, causes crown gall, inserts plasmid into host cells.
Caulobacter
Divides into cell with anchor stalk and cell with flagellum.
Nitrobacter
Oxidizes nitrite into nitrate.
Rickettsia
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, obligate intracellular parasite, dog ticks cause Typhus.
Rickettsia typhi
Endemic to humans from rodents / fleas.
Rickettsia prowazekii
Epidemic from lice, high mortality.
Rhizobium
Fixes nitrogen into ammonia for plants.
Wolbachia
Symbiont, influences insects, parthogenesis, antibiotic can treat against nematodes.

Beta: Decay, nitrogen, sulphur.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Gonorrhea, diplococci, STI, The Clap, endemic, attach to epithelium mucosal cells, inflammation, pus, discharge, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, can cause sterility / newborn blindness.
Nitrosomonas
Oxidizes ammonium into nitrite.
Thiobacillus
Oxidizes inorganic sulphur.

Gamma: Most diverse of Proteobacteria.

Escherichia coli
Gastroenteritis, G-, enterobacteria, Shiga enterotoxin.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Rod / cocci, aerobic, opportunistic nosocomial infection from hospitals, pneumonia, metabolizes many substrates, difficult to kill.
Salmonella enterica
Salmonella food infection, enterobacteria, divided into serovars based on cell surface antigens, serovars divided into biovars.
Thiomargarita
Coccus, visible to the naked eye.
Vibrio cholerae
Cholera, facultative anaerobe, fecal contaminated water / seafood, intestinal, exotoxin inhibits ion balance, lose gallons of water a day.
Yersinia pestis
Bubonic / Pneumonic plague, rod, subcutaneous hemorrhaging, in prairie dogs / squirrels, rats / fleas, affects lymph nodes.

Delta: Predatory, prey on other bacteria.

Bdellovibrio
Attach to G-, pass through outer membrane, replicate in periplasm.

Epsilon: Helical or vibrioid.

Campylobacter jejuni
Common intestinal disease, food poisoning.

Nonproteobacteria

G-, not closely related to proteobacteria.

Cyanobacteria
Photosynthetic, oxygenic, blue-green algae, rare anatoxin exotoxin.

G+ Bacteria

Firmicutes: Low G + C content.

Bacillus anthracis
Anthrax, Bacillales, facultative anaerobe.
Clostridium botulinum
Botulism, spores on canned goods, anaerobe, in soil / water / intestines, sporadic, neurotoxin targets nerves, flaccid paralysis in muscles, botox.
Clostridium tetani
Tetanus, rod, in soil.
Epulopiscium
In gut of Red Sea surgeon fish, visible to naked eye.
Lactobacillus
Rod, Lactobacillales, found in GI tract, lactic acid fermentation.
Listeria monocytogenes
Listeriosis, Bacillales, grows in refrigerators, contaminates deli meats + dairy products, infects GI tract, flu-like symptoms, meningitis, affects fetuses.
Mycoplasma pneumonia
Pneumonia, no cell wall, very small.
Staphylococcus aureus
Cocci, Bacillales, food / ear / skin infections, pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, plasmids cause high antibiotic resistance.
Streptococcus
Strep, Lactobacillales, pneumonia, endotoxins, scarlet / rheumatic fever, necrotizing fasciitis.

Actinobacteria: High G + C content.

Corynebacterium diptheriae
Diptheria, respiratory issues, heart failure, paralysis.
Mycobacterium leprae
Leprosy, attacks nerves / skin / eyes / nose / muscles.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, attacks lungs.
Streptomyces
Aerobic, asexual spores, in soil, produce antibiotics.

Spirochetes

G-, helical rod, axial filaments, in contaminated water / soil / sewage / decaying matter / animal mouths.

Borrelia burgdorferi
Lyme disease, deer ticks, field mice, rash, heart / flue / arthritic symptoms.
Treponema pallidum
Syphilis, STD, can be latent, rash, damage to heart, joints, and bones.

Bacteroidetes

G-, anaerobic, rod, in human intestines, most common on / in us.


Chlamydiota

G-, ovoid, obligate intracellular in eukaryotic cells.

Chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydiain genital tract, eyes, or lymph nodes.